EC 4 Evil Genius: Lessons 9, 10, & 11

Electronics Circuits for the Evil Genius lessons #9 and #10 cover the operation of both the NPN and PNP transistors. Specifically speaking the NPN-2N3904 and the PNP-2N3906. The lessons demonstrate how each transistor type reacts when voltage is applied to the base of the transistor. The demonstration circuit for lesson #9 reveals how the voltage held in a capacitor is used to power the transistor and subsequently allow the LED to

Review: Electronic Circuits for the Evil Genius

 Electronic Circuits for the Evil Genius has been on my list to review for a while. So I decided to finally crack it open and see what it was all about. As with most books of the this type, project based. I typically will look for any available ready-made kits, and luckily for me ABRA Electronics already had one made. The bonus of these kits is simply that of saving

How to estimate a delay cycle for the HCS12

Creating a delay and estimating how much time the delay takes is a straightforward process. I’ll show you how to create a delay routine in assembly, in addition to estimating how much time the routine actually takes.  In order to estimate the delay cycle, we will need to determine the amount of time spent in clock cycles for each instruction inside the delay routine. By obtaining a datasheet for the

AVRISP MKII Tutorial – The setup

So, you finally got a hold of an AVRISP MKII and have no idea what to do next .  Well lucky for you the setup and overall configuration is a lot easier than you might think. This mini tutorial will demonstrate how to flash an AVR chip via the Atmel Studio 6 IDE.  If you do not have Atmel Studio installed you can download the IDE from here. Of note,


Exercise ten, “Transistor Switching”.  This exercise introduces a very important component which has characteristics similar to the relay.  Whereas both components can switch the flow of electrical current. That said, the documentation explains the ins and outs of transistors, in that they are naturally off until turned on; considered a limitation.  Relays on the other hand offer more switching options, i.e., can be normally open, normally closed, or utilize a


Exercise nine, “Time and Capacitors”.  This exercise demonstrates how one can measure time by simply placing a capacitor in series with a resistor.  The importance of this concept is related to the “time constant”.  That said, by placing a capacitor and resistor in series, the amount of time it takes for the capacitor to charge will be much longer than if both components were placed in parallel. To fully implement


Exercise eight, “A Relay Oscillator”. This exercise is a slightly revised version of exercise seven in which the direct connection was between the push button and the coil.  In exercise eight, the voltage arrives at the coil as a result of traveling through the contacts of the relay.  Therefore, when the push button is depressed, the contacts of the relay feed the voltage to both the coil and the leftmost

Make: Electronics – Chp 2 Exercise 7

Exercise seven “Relay-Driven LEDs”.  This experiment introduces the Relay component and is used to drive two LEDs.  The heart of a relay is basically an iron core wrapped around wire.  The electricity running through the coiled wire will produce a magnetic reaction,  triggering an internal lever that closes two contacts.  During this process the relay is said to be energized, allowing a low voltage signal or low current to travel

Make: Electronics – Chp 2 Exercise 6

Exercise six “Very Simple Switching”.  Looking back to exercise four we covered how to turn electricity into a functional property and lit an LED.  This exercise follows up that concept and is the beginning stages of controlling electrical power via switches. Putting together the discrete components is quite simple but can feel a little tedious without using a bread board.  I could imagine that someone who has not done this

Make: Electronics – Chp 1 Exercise 4

Exercise four “Varying Voltage” is an introduction to the manipulation of voltage via a pot (potentiometer). One of the initial requirements of this exercise is to dismantle a pot and perform a visual inspection of its inner-workings.  Personally, I am not a fan of ruining a perfectly functioning component. However, if you are careful, it is pretty easy reassembling the pot. A DMM is used to reveal the resistance bandwidth